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See Article History Alternative Titles: A moderate Democrat and vigorous leader in the United States SenateJohnson was elected vice president in and acceded to the presidency in upon the assassination of Pres. During his administration he signed into law the Civil Rights Actthe most comprehensive civil rights legislation since the Reconstruction era, initiated major social service programs, and bore the brunt of national opposition to his vast expansion of American involvement in the Vietnam War.
For a discussion of the history and nature of the presidency, see presidency of the United States of America. An overview of Lyndon B. Key events in the life of Lyndon B. Early life Johnson, the first of five children, was born in a three-room house in the hills of south-central Texas to Sam Ealy Johnson, Jr.
Sam Johnson had earlier lost money in cotton speculation, and, despite his legislative career, the family often struggled to make a living.
While pursuing his studies there in —29, he took a teaching job at a predominantly Mexican American school in Cotulla, Texas, where the extreme poverty of his students made a profound impression on him.
Through his later work in state politics, Johnson developed close and enduring ties to the Mexican American community in Texas—a factor that would later help the Kennedy-Johnson ticket carry Texas in the presidential election of Career in Congress After graduating from college inJohnson won praise as a teacher of debate and public speaking at Sam Houston High School in Houston.
Following two years as director of the National Youth Administration in Texas —37he ran successfully for a seat in the House as a supporter of the New Deal policies of Democratic Pres. He represented his district in the House for most of the next 12 years, interrupting his legislative duties for six months in —42 to serve as lieutenant commander in the navy—thereby becoming the first member of Congress to serve on active duty in World War II.
Johnson proudly wore the decoration in his lapel for the rest of his life. Johnson ran unsuccessfully for a seat in the United States Senate in a special election in Running again inhe won the Democratic primary which in Texas was tantamount to election after a vicious campaign that included vote fraud on both sides.
During his years in the Senate, Johnson developed a talent for negotiating and reaching accommodation among divergent political factions.
By methods sometimes tactful but often ruthless, he transformed the Senate Democrats into a remarkably disciplined and cohesive bloc. At the Democratic convention inJohnson received 80 votes as a favourite-son candidate for president. With an eye on the presidential nomination inhe attempted to cultivate his reputation among supporters as a legislative statesman; during this time he engineered the passage of two civil rights measures, in andthe first such legislation in the 20th century.
Vice presidency At the Democratic convention inJohnson lost the presidential nomination to John F. Kennedy on the first ballot, votes to Overcoming his disappointment at not heading the ticket himself, he campaigned energetically, and many observers felt that without his presence Kennedy could not have carried Texas, Louisiana, and the Carolinas, states that were essential to his victory over the Republican candidate, Richard M.
Johnson was generally uncomfortable in his role as vice president. Johnson taking the presidential oath of office aboard Air Force One, November 22, In one afternoon Johnson had been thrust into the most difficult—and most prized—role of his long political career.
Kennedy, November 22, Johnson Library and Museum In the tempestuous days after the assassination, Johnson helped to calm national hysteria and ensure continuity in the presidency. Johnson talking with Martin Luther King, Jr. Johnson addressing the nation as he signed the Civil Rights Act, July 2, Public Domain The Civil Rights Actwhich Johnson signed into law on July 2,was the most comprehensive and far-reaching legislation of its kind in American history.
Among its provisions were a prohibition of racial segregation and discrimination in places of public accommodation, a prohibition of discrimination by race or sex in employment and union membership, and new guarantees of equal voting rights.
The law also authorized the Justice Department to bring suit against local school boards to end allegedly discriminatory practices, thereby speeding up school desegregation. The constitutionality of the law was immediately challenged but was upheld by the Supreme Court in Johnson Library and Museum; photograph, Cecil Stoughton Johnson outlined his domestic agenda in a commencement address at the University of Michigan in May The Great Society rests on abundance and liberty for all.
It demands an end to poverty and injustice, to which we are totally committed in our time. Other legislation addressed problems in education, housing and urban development, transportation, environmental conservation, and immigration.
Johnson saw these measures as building on and completing the New Deal vision of Franklin D. Roosevelt; with their adoption the United States joined the ranks of the welfare states of western Europe and Scandinavia.
However, the effect of these undertakings was soon vitiated by increasing American military involvement in the war in Vietnam, which had begun during the Eisenhower administration and was accelerated by President Kennedy.
Truman right looking on as Pres. Johnson signs the Medicare bill at the Harry S. Johnson signing the Voting Rights Act in the U. Capitol Rotunda in Washington, D.Robert Strange McNamara (June 9, – July 6, ) was an American business executive and the eighth United States Secretary of Defense, serving from to under Presidents John F.
Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. May 21, · Watch video · A committed liberal, he wrote speeches for John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson and later worked as an author, journalist and political consultant. On November 22, , President Kennedy and the First Lady journeyed to Dallas on a campaign trip.
Accompanying the Kennedys in the motorcade through the city were Democratic governor John Connally and his wife, Nellie. From left: President Urho Kekkonen, Sylvi Kekkonen, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis and John F.
Kennedy. On June 4, , the president met with Khrushchev in Vienna and left the meetings angry and disappointed that he had allowed the premier to bully him, despite the warnings he had received. In the campaign, Johnson, as John F. Kennedy’s running mate, was elected Vice President. On November 22, , when Kennedy was assassinated, Johnson was sworn in as President.
Lyndon B. Johnson (–) was the 36th president of the United States, assuming the office after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in November Prior to serving as Kennedy's vice president, Johnson had long represented Texas in the United States Senate.