One of the main reasons is the realization that micronutrient malnutrition contributes substantially to the global burden of disease. Furthermore, although micronutrient malnutrition is more frequent and severe in the developing world and among disadvantaged populations, it also represents a public health problem in some industrialized countries.
Main methods of food fortification: Commercial and industrial fortification wheat flour, corn meal, cooking oils Biofortification breeding crops to increase their nutritional value, which can include both conventional selective breeding, and genetic engineering Home fortification example: To replace nutrients which were lost during manufacturing of the product e.
To ensure the appropriate vitamin and mineral nutrient composition of foods for special dietary purposes e. There are also several advantages to approaching nutrient deficiencies among populations via food fortification as opposed to other methods.
These may include, but are not limited to: Within the discussion of nutrient deficiencies the topic of nutrient toxicities can also be immediately questioned. Fortification of nutrients in foods may deliver toxic amounts of nutrients to an individual and also cause its associated side effects.
As seen with the case of excessive fluoride intakes below, the result can be irreversible staining to the teeth.
Although this may be a minor toxic effect to health, there are several that are more severe. An example is skim milk that has had the fat removed, and then had vitamin A and vitamin D added back. Vitamins A and D are both fat-soluble and non-water-soluble, so a person consuming skim milk in the absence of fats may not be able to absorb as much of these vitamins as one would be able to absorb from drinking whole milk.
On the other hand, the nutrient added as a fortificant may have a higher bioavailability than from foods, which is the case with folic acid used to increase folate intakes.
Excess intake of micronutrients[ edit ] Ecological studies have shown that increased B vitamin fortification is correlated with the prevalence of obesity and diabetes. High blood concentrations of folic acid may decrease natural killer cell cytotoxicity, and high folate status may reduce the response to drugs used to treat malaria, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and cancer.
For example, in the U.
In many cases, the micronutrients added to foods in fortification are synthetic. In some cases, certain forms of micronutrients can be actively toxic in a sufficiently high dose, even if other forms are safe at the same or much higher doses.
There are examples of such toxicity in both synthetic and naturally-occurring forms of vitamins. Retinolthe active form of Vitamin A, is toxic in a much lower dose than other forms, such as beta carotene.
Menadionea phased-out synthetic form of Vitamin Kis also known to be toxic.Of the global food fortification ingredients market by application, in , food and beverages application accounted for the largest share of around 50% in terms of value, owing to high consumption of fortification ingredients in daily food products to ensure proper nutrition for the consumers.
Global Instant Noodles Strategic Business Report - Instant Noodles Gain Prominence as a Vehicle for Food Fortification. This chapter provides an overview of food regulation in Canada.
At the outset, this chapter describes the division of powers among federal, provincial and municipal government and identifies the roles of key regulatory and enforcement government bodies, most notably at the federal level Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).
Contributions of FAO to food fortification Governments can request specific technical assistance from FAO for food fortification.
This may include assistance to goverments in planning and operational management skills necessary to start or expand a food fortification programme to . large-scale food fortification: an overview of trends and challenges in low- and middle-income countries in 6 Global micronutrient deficiencies are estimated to affect billion people and cause economic.
EN Nutrition - Publications - Micronutrients - General - Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. EN Nutrition - Publications - Micronutrients - General - Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients One of the main reasons is the realization that micronutrient malnutrition contributes substantially to the global burden.