Richard Wender, chief cancer control officer at the American Cancer Society.
Environmental Agents and Cancer Development Environmental Exposure Population epidemiological and laboratory studies have led to the discovery of many potential environmental factors in the initiation, promotion and progression of cancer.
The recognition of increased scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps due to coal and tar exposure was followed by an observation in a British factory that all men distilling 2-napthylamine developed bladder cancer.
Exposure to mustard gas, used as a chemical warfare agent in World War I has been associated with a higher risk of respiratory tract and lung cancers due to its mutagenic properties.
Geographical Influences There have also been associations made between different geographical regions and particular cancers.
Stomach cancer is times higher among Japanese men, attributed to the consumption of fermented foods; breast cancer is 20 times higher among American women, attributed to the high fat American diet; and liver cancer is 10 times higher in Africa, which correlates with high rates of Hepatitis B infection.
This compound is prevalent in grain stores in tropical and subtropical regions because moist grain is a very good place for the fungi to live. One of the most potent carcinogens in humans is benzo[a]-pyrene, a compound found in cigarette smoke.
Alcohol is a promoter of carcinogenesis in humans, as is asbestos. Additionally, UV radiation, from exposure to the sun or tanning beds, is a powerful initiator in humans and is a cause of skin cancer.
For this reason, long-term tamoxifen treatment is losing popularity in favor of aromatase inhibitors. These include exposure to radiation or the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol DES.
Physical Impact and Associated Cancer Exposure: Aflatoxin is produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus fungi. The fungi synthesize aflatoxin when they are living in warm, moist conditions. These fungi are prevalent among crops such as rice, corn, cassava, nuts, peanuts, chilies, and spices.
Countries with the highest amounts of these organisms lie within 40 degrees latitude north or south of the equator. Storage of food under warm, moist conditions increases the risk of aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxicosis is the disease that results from ingestion of aflatoxin.
This disease can present in one of two forms. The first is an acute illness that results from exposure to large amounts of the toxin over a short period of time.
Adult humans have a high tolerance for aflatoxin. Ingestion of large amounts of aflatoxin usually causes liver damage and acute illness but is rarely fatal.
However, exposure to high levels of the toxin can cause death in children. The second form of aflatoxicosis is due to low level chronic exposure to aflatoxin.
Chronic aflatoxin exposure has an additive effect and can lead to the development of liver cancer. Aflatoxin increases the risk of liver cancer usually in the form of hepatocellular carcinoma or HCC in all persons who ingest contaminated food.
It can also increase the risk of lung cancer in workers who handle the grain. This can partially account for the greatly increased risk of cancer development in individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and hepatitis virus.
It can grow for up to 3 years before causing physical symptoms. Non surgical treatments are only minimally effective. Liver transplantation is the only current cure for HCC. Unfortunately, based on the number, size, location, and severity of the underlying disease, not all patients are candidates for a transplant.
As more is learned about different types of cancer, additional links with infectious agents are likely to be found. Parasites One of the first connections between infections and cancer was provided by Dr. Fibiger noticed an association between cancer in his laboratory rats and infection with a parasitic worm nematode.
He named the worm Spiroptera carcinoma.Tobacco. Tobacco is an herbaceous plant belonging to the Solanaceae family. The primary source of commercial tobacco is cultivated and harvested Nicotiana tabacum 76 Tobacco leaves contain nicotine, the chemical responsible for tobacco's addictive effects.
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In another blow to the tobacco industry, most U.S. Costco locations have quietly stopped selling tobacco products, and the wholesale retail giant will continue phasing out sales at more stores. By stop selling tobacco products and removing all sweets from the drugstores as well, the firm would have to reassess how and in what kind of ways it can have its income.
It will be very difficult to survive for the company, especially in the beginning of this change.